Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome of multiple etiologies, characterized mainly by chronic hyperglycemia with dysfunctions related to the metabolism of proteins and lipids. Among the types of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents 90% of cases, and it occurs when the body does not properly use the insulin produced or does not produce the required hormone capable of controlling blood glucose. Several chronic diseases, such as T2DM, have their origin associated with genetic and environmental aspects with nutrients and dietary patterns playing a key role in the prevention, development and treatment of this disease.
The blog below gives insight into the different traits and some of the important genes out of the many associated with T2DM.
Vitamin D in Type 2 Diabetes
Your genotype decides your propensity level for developing type 2 diabetes due to modulation in vitamin D levels. Vitamin D enters the beta cell and binds with receptors to interact and activate the insulin gene thereby increasing its synthesis and regulates the metabolism of fatty acids.
Genes involved - Near DHCR7, VDR
Your genotype decides your propensity level for developing insulin resistance. In insulin resistance, the ability of the cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose into tissues is reduced. This may further increase the risk of developing pre-diabetes and eventually type II diabetes.
Genes involved - SC4MOL, CDKAL1, FTO
Type II Diabetes
Your genotype decides your propensity level of developing Type II Diabetes. However, many other factors like being overweight, being inactive, and having lots of junk food can increase the risk of developing diabetes.
Genes involved - IGF2BP2, SLC30A8, ADIPOQ, FTO
Your genotype decides your propensity level of developing Diabetic Retinopathy. Prolonged diabetes in a person increases their risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. Therefore, exercise regularly to keep cholesterol levels in control, check your blood sugar levels regularly, and have a balanced diet.
Genes Involved – RXRG, UCP2, IFNG, IL10, ACE
Your genotype decides your propensity level of developing Diabetic Foot Ulcers. The impaired healing process can be attributed to high or regularly fluctuating levels of blood sugar in diabetic conditions. Therefore, in such a condition even a mild injury can cause a foot ulcer.
Genes involved - TLR4, TNFRSF11B, VEGFA
Your genotype decides your propensity level of developing Diabetic Cataract. If you are diagnosed with diabetes, consult a physician and take measures to lower high blood glucose levels.
Genes involved - TAC1, NEDD9, GBA3, PPARD
Your genotype decides your propensity level of developing Diabetic Neuropathy. Maintaining proper blood glucose levels, including nutritious food in diet, and exercising on a regular basis helps reduce the risk.
Genes involved - IL10, ELMO1, CYBA, VEGFA
Your genotype decides your propensity level of developing Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy is a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. Over time, diabetes can result in some degree of nerve damage throughout the body. Maintaining proper blood glucose levels, including nutritious food in diet, and exercising on a regular basis helps reduce the risk.
Genes involved - TLR4, UCP2, IFNG, IL10
A variety of habits and environmental factors, including food, can influence the expression of genes involved in T2DM which decide your body's propensity for developing T2DM. Carrying out Nutrigenomic profiling to understand genetic predisposition and dietary factors and putting in place a personalized diabetes management program aligned to an individuals genomic profile can go a long way in the prevention, delay or in some instances reversal of T2DM and its complications.
Karoline Felisbino, Juliano Gomes Granzotti1, Larissa Bello-Santos1 and Izonete Cristina Guiloski - Nutrigenomics in Regulating the Expression of Genes Related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Front. Physiol., 21 July 2021
Genoveva Berná, María Jesús Oliveras-López, Enrique Jurado-Ruíz, Juan Tejedo, Francisco Bedoya, Bernat Soria and Franz Martín - Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics Insights into Diabetes Etiopathogenesis, Nutrients. 2014 Nov; 6(11): 5338–5369.