The ability to engage routinely in carrying out your day to day, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, being disease free, being productive and having the energy to enjoy life depends a lot on a nutritious diet that supplies all the needed nutrients. Nutritious diets are crucial for a healthy lifestyle since they contribute to health, fitness, overall wellness and immunity. A nutritious diet can help to enhance and maximize health while a poor diet can seriously hamper your “Quality of Life”.
Your genomic profile plays an important role in deciding your diet type and nutrition requirement as genes and variations observed play a significant role in the absorption, distribution and metabolism of nutrients. Aligning your diet and nutrition requirement as per your genomic profile yields multiple benefits and ensures a sustained approach towards health management and maintaining a good “Quality of Life”.
In this blog we provide some insights into the different traits and some of the important genes associated with macro and micro nutrition requirement.
Macronutrients - Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins are classified as Macronutrients required by the body
Response to Carbohydrates
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Carbohydrate metabolism. Genetic variations can influence the risk of developing insulin resistance and obesity in response to carbohydrate consumption. People with down-regulated genes tend to inefficiently metabolize carbohydrates, which increases their risk for insulin resistance and obesity in response to carbohydrate consumption.
Genes involved – ACE, ADRB2, SREBP1C, PPARG, TCF7L2, FTO
Response to Saturated Fats
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Saturated Fat metabolism. Saturated fats are a class of macronutrients which are used for energy generation by the body. Saturated fats are found in butter, ghee, margarine, and in animal fats. Genetic variations can influence how the body responds to saturated fat intake, in terms of developing abnormal lipid profiles and obesity.
Genes involved - LRP1, AHSG, APOA2, PPARA, PPARG, TCF7L2, FTO
Response to Monounsaturated Fats
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA) metabolism. Genetic variations can influence the degree of health benefits observed with MUFA intake. Monounsaturated fats also play a critical role in regulating the body’s immune function. Eating monounsaturated fats instead of saturated fats and trans fats can lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Genes involved - APOA1, ADIPOQ, APOB
Response to Polyunsaturated Fats
Your genotype decides your propensity level to Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) response. PUFAs can help reduce LDL cholesterol levels in the blood which can subsequently lower the risk of heart disease and stroke. There are two main types of PUFA, omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. Omega 3 PUFAs are anti-inflammatory and found in fatty fish, shellfish, liver, and in some seeds like flaxseed. Genetic variations can influence the dietary requirement for omega 3 PUFA intake.
Genes involved – CETP, FADS1, APOC3, APOA5, ADIPOQ
Response To Protein
Your genotype decides your propensity level to Protein Response. Genetic variations can lead to altered response to increased protein consumption in terms of maintaining lost weight. A protein-rich diet boosts metabolism and reduces appetite. Therefore, consumption of proteins invokes a feeling of fullness, decreases total calorie consumption, and reduces appetite over time, which aids in fat loss and weight maintenance.
Genes involved - ADCY3, TFAP2B, FTO
Vitamin A Metabolism
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Vitamin A metabolism. Genetic variations can affect the process of beta-carotene conversion to retinol, thereby influencing dietary vitamin A requirements. Vitamin A also plays an important role in the immune function of the body and in maintaining skin health.
Genes involved - BCMO1
Vitamin B6 Metabolism
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Vitamin B6 Metabolism. Our bodies use B vitamins to convert the food we eat into the energy we need to function. It plays a crucial role in carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. Genetic variations can alter the absorption of vitamin B6, thereby influencing the risk of vitamin B6 deficiency.
Genes involved - Near NBPF3
Vitamin D Metabolism
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Vitamin D Metabolism. Vitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium levels in the blood, thereby playing an important role in maintenance of bone health. It also results in cognitive impairment in older people. Genetic variations can influence the metabolism of vitamin D, thereby influencing the risk of developing vitamin D deficiency.
Genes involved - CYP2R1, Near DHCR7, GC, VDR
Vitamin E Metabolism
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Vitamin E Metabolism. Primary role of vitamin E in the body is as an antioxidant, to neutralize the free radicals produced in the body, thereby preventing cellular damage. It is also an important component of the immune system. Genetic variations can influence the absorption of vitamin E in the body.
Genes involved - SOD3, APOE, SOD2
Vitamin C Metabolism
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Vitamin C Metabolism. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an essential water-soluble vitamin involved in the repair of tissues and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It also plays an important role in the immune system, functioning as an antioxidant. Genetic variations can influence the absorption of vitamin C in the body.
Genes involved - SLC23A1, SLC23A2
Vitamin B9 Metabolism
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Vitamin B9 Metabolism. Variations in certain genes can influence the metabolism of vitamin B9. Vitamin B9, more commonly known as folate (naturally-occurring form of B9) or folic acid (a synthetic form), is a water soluble vitamin that is a part of the B vitamin family. Vitamin B9, when converted to its active form, plays an important role in DNA synthesis and cell division, red blood cell production, and clearance of homocysteine, all of which are affected in cases of impaired metabolism of vitamin B9.
Genes involved – MTHFR
Vitamin B12 Metabolism
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Vitamin B12 Metabolism. Vitamin B12, or cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in many metabolism pathways in our body. It is particularly important in the nervous system functioning and synthesis of myelin. It also plays an important role in red blood cell formation and production of DNA. Along with folate and riboflavin, it also helps in eliminating homocysteine from the cell.
Genes involved - ABCD4, MTRR, FUT6, TCN1, CD320, TCN2, MTR, CUBN, FUT2
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Iron Metabolism. About 70% of the body’s iron stores are found in the red blood cells. It is essential for the formation of hemoglobin and transport of oxygen to the cells in the body. Iron is also involved in immune-system related functions and is a critical nutrient for energy metabolism pathway. Genetics variations can affect iron metabolism and thereby influence the ability to absorb iron from the diet.
Genes involved – TF, HIST1H1T, CUBN, TMPRSS6, HFE
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Antioxidant Metabolism. Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit the oxidation process in the body. Certain processes can lead to the formation of oxidative species in the body, which can damage the cells and DNA, leading to impaired cellular functions. The ability of antioxidants to destroy oxidative species protects the structural integrity of cells and tissues. Antioxidants also function in strengthening the immune response of the body.
Genes involved - GSTP1, PON1, SOD2, CAT, GPX1
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Calcium Metabolism. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, more than 90% of which is present in the bones and teeth. Calcium is also important for proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Calcium is absorbed by the body in the form of phosphate salts and it is crucial for the regulation of muscle contraction and heart functioning.
Genes involved - CYP24A1, DGKD, Near GATA3, Near DGKH, CASR
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Phosphate Metabolism. Phosphate is an essential mineral that is necessary for the formation of bones and teeth. In the body, almost all of the phosphorus is combined with oxygen, forming phosphate. Phosphate is also used as a building block for several important substances including those used by the cell for energy generation, making cell membranes, and making DNA.
Genes involved - CASR
Your genotype decides your propensity level for Magnesium Metabolism. Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It helps in maintaining normal nerve and muscle function, supports a healthy immune system, keeps the heartbeat steady, and helps bones remain strong. Genetic variations can influence the absorption of magnesium, thereby affecting its serum levels.
Genes involved - SHROOM3, MDS1, Near DCDC5, CASR